On October 14th in the year 1066, a battle took place in England that in many ways determined the course of the next one thousand years of western history. The Norman army of Duke William of Normandy in France fought the English Army of King Harold II. Harold had been on the throne only a few months, and contested Duke William’s right to rule England. William’s claim to the throne had the blessing of the Pope, and many nobles from across France joined the battle after being promised English titles and land as the spoils of war. During battle, King Harold was killed, shot through the eye by an arrow. The Norman army won, and William gained control of all England, and Duke William became known as William the Conqueror.