Patagonia’s Indigenous Communities: 5 Cultural Experiences to Discover on an Expedition
In Patagonia, a sub-region of Chile and Argentina, there are many exciting cultural experiences to discover.
However, wherever you go, responsible travel is what you should strive for. It is important to understand how your actions impact your destination.
Let’s dive into a list of the indigenous communities you can visit in Patagonia. And how to strive for social, economical, and environmental awareness on your journey.
Understanding Indigenous Communities In Patagonia
Approximately 8000 years ago, groups of hunters and gatherers migrated to Patagonia in search of food and water.
Many of these exceptional groups adapted incredibly to the cold, harsh, severe Patagonian climate conditions. And they peacefully coexisted until more modern civilizations interfered.
Now, a Patagonia expedition can be an exciting adventure filled with rare species of wildlife, stunning natural landscapes, and fascinating indigenous communities.
However, tours in the past have often been conducted in such a way that is not in line with the goals and traditions of the indigenous people. Therefore, it is our responsibility as tourists and travellers to preserve the sacredness of this land.
These ancient communities are at risk for exploitation and misrepresentation. So, if you do decide to visit them, ensure, as a responsible traveller, to be respectful of their decision-making processes and communication methods.
Let’s dive into a discussion of each unique community and its cultural practices.
1. Mapuche Communities
The Mapuche (translated to “people of the earth”) are an indigenous community who are deeply connected to the natural world. This can be seen in their cuisine, which is based on the cereals and legumes available naturally each season.
It has been predicted that the Mapuche indigenous community has occupied this land since 600-500 BC. And they successfully resisted the Spanish invasion, although many lives were lost. Therefore, it is understandable that their ancestral land is sacred to them. And that travellers must respect their rich history and ancient traditions.
With this said, your expedition could lead you to engage in some of their cultural traditions, such as weaving, music, and cuisine.
The Mapuche are known historically for weaving ponchos and blankets. Mapuche women would pass on weaving techniques, patterns, and textiles to younger generations. This has kept the tradition alive.
Music, to the Mapuche, is not played for recreation. The rhythmic drum beating and lyrical vocals are considered an important way to convey ideas and emotions, and to communicate with oneself and the world of the spirits.
2. Selk’nam Communities
Another Patagonian indigenous community you may encounter are the tall and strong Selk’nam (or Ona), whose heartland is the Tierra del Fuego.
The Selk’nam people have always been proficient hunters. They relied on llama and fox meat for survival.
When visiting the Selk’nam community, you can learn all about their storytelling abilities. For example, young men would have to engage in a theatrical initiation ceremony to fight and unmask “spirits” (or men dressed up as spirits). All actors of the spirits portrayed characteristics which made each God or deity recognizable.
Afterwards, the storytelling commenced. These stories included tales of the sun and moon, and of women who disguised themselves as spirits to control men.
If you’re aware of the history of Patagonia’s indigenous communities, you will likely have heard of the Selk’nam Genocide. This atrocity occurred when ethnic European invaders settled on their land and hunted Selk’nam community members in reaction to the community killing their sheep.
This piece of history is another reason to remain respectful and understanding of the history and traditions of the Selk’nam people.
3. Yámana Communities
Next on our list is the Yámana community, whose namesake translates to “nomads of the sea”.
Fittingly, these inhabitants of Cape Horn and the Strait of Magellan were and are still incredible seafarers.
They used canoes made out of tree bark to roam the straits in search of sea animals, fish, and molluscs. The men utilized harpoons to hunt sea lions. And the women dove underwater to collect shellfish.
You will discover on your exploration that there is less to hunt and collect in the sea due to overfishing. However, the Yámana people continue to fish. And they have added cultivating small gardens to their repertoire.
The Yámana people acknowledge neither chiefs nor superiors. It is important to respect this cultural value of theirs when an outsider visits. Despite having a different structure to more modern civilizations, they have thrived.
4. Tehuelche Communities
Our next indigenous community’s name translates to the “brave people”, “rugged people”, or “barren land people”.
The Tehuelche (or Aonikenk) people surely are brave for their nomadic and innovative history.
These creative people adopted a horseriding lifestyle in the 18th and 19th centuries. They captured wild horses and used them to travel and hunt.
In addition to riding on horseback, the Tehuelche hunted with dogs, bows and arrows, and spherical stone balls known as “bolas”. And their primary preys were guanaco (members of the camel family) and rhea meat, with some plant food in the mix as well.
On your Patagonia expedition, you can learn about this lifestyle, as well as their spiritual beliefs. It is important to respect their cultural and spiritual beliefs, which they hold very dear. Perhaps they will tell you stories about their supreme deity who created the world, and their earth/bush spirits.
The Tehuelche worked hard to survive and thrive in the Patagonian harsh landscape, so it is important to respect that hard work. And not play a role in their exploitation.
5. Kawésqar Communities
We all know travel can help you learn about history. However, it is still important to be mindful that each of these indigenous communities is not simply a tourist attraction.
The Kawésqar (“human”) community, the final community on our list, is one community that desires to tell people about its history and cultural customs.
The nomadic Kawésqar are exceptional navigators, especially of the sea. Despite the rough and treacherous conditions of the Patagonia waters, they skillfully navigated the fjords and channels. They succeeded in this in a way that modern voyagers could never.
And they impressively caught their meals from the sea in handcrafted wooden canoes!
Where to Stay in Patagonia
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